The particle size affects the texture: big particles will soften the gum, and small ones will make it harder. Polyols' nature acts on the texture, too: sorbitol, maltitol, xylitol in this order will give from hard to soft gums. And lastly the quantity of liquid phase will play a role on texture too.
It will stop when we reach the harness that allows to pack or to break in pieces before coating.
Sorbitol is not the only one. SweetPearl® maltitol and XYLISORB® xylitol can be used as well; they will give a softer texture.
Yes, some recipe examples can be found in this website. The "how it's made" category will give you the basics about chewing gum production.
The result will be harder and more brittle than the standard process.
If the gum is very soft, it is recommended to avoid rolling and scoring, but more likely to use cutting and wrapping, toary/chain die or ball former.
Polyols in general versus sugar harden the gum, so more gum base is required to maintain the softness and plasticity.